Monday, May 25, 2020

The Differences Between Native Americans And Europeans

The arrival of Europeans in America greatly disrupted the life of the Natives. The natives had their own culture in America with their own special beliefs. When Europeans arrived they tried to alter the way Native Americans lived their lives to resemble their way of living. The Natives did not respect this because they had previously built a lifestyle in America that they wish not to be transformed. The two cultures had different opinions about government, religion, land, and society. Due to the many differences between the Native and European people, it was unfeasible that there would be no conflicts between them. With different cultures and beliefs, it is very hard for groups of people to avoid conflict with one another. One of the biggest factors of the clash between Native Americans and Europeans is that they are coming from completely different lifestyles. Europeans had very poor diet, which consisted of mostly bread and soup. Those who did not starve were malnourished. Europe w as filled with many diseases that killed much of Europe’s population. Native American survival was based on hunting and gathering. If they killed an animal they ate, if they failed to do so they went hungry. Native Americans lived under a democratic system and were separated into tribes and lived in tents. There was no such thing as rich or poor between tribes, which eliminated competition to move up the social ladder. Some tribes were very small, and to avoid being outrun by larger tribes, theShow MoreRelatedDifferences Between European And Native American Society1549 Words   |  7 Pagesmany years in the future, and many more matters. In Native American society, however, women were much more prevalent in society. They were warriors, farmers, and craftswomen. Though they usually were not leaders, they were still very important to the construction of a family and tribe. European and Native American cultures vary greatly in their views of women in the home, in societal struc ture, and in mythology. In the 16th century, European women were not allowed to have professions such as lawyersRead MoreNative Americans vs Europeans861 Words   |  4 PagesIn the time of the American Revolutionary War, there were many differences that influenced how our country turned out today. Most of the cultural differences occurred between the Native Americans and the Europeans that had newly settled in what is known today as America. Some of the most notable differences were those of religion, political, economic, and social. These differences divided the habitants of America in several ways and formed many bonds but also brought them to many moments of conflictRead MoreNative American And English Colonists1056 Words   |  5 Pagesenvironment. This is where Native American and English colonists interactions began. Prior to English settlers, the Native Americans had also had interactions with the Spanish. At first people believed that English colonists would treat the Natives better than the S panish colonists. But as history has shown, this was not the case. Quickly after the first interactions with the Native Americans the need for the colonist to gain control of the Native American was inevitable. With Europeans coming into AmericaRead MoreCulture Is A Common Way Of Life Essay1190 Words   |  5 PagesCULTURAL DIFFERENCES STUDENT NAME STUDENT SCHOOL â€Æ' Abstract According to Christopher Dawson, culture is a common way of life. It is a shared set of learned beliefs, values, assumptions, attitudes and behaviours that differentiate a particular group of people from others(Wederspahn, 2009. p.19). Fundamental differences among people all stem from nationality, ethnicity and culture. Family background and individual experiences also contribute to these differences. These lead to differences in practicesRead MoreNative Americans And The Native American Tribe973 Words   |  4 PagesDifferent Cultures The Europeans and the Native Americans arguably do not co-exist because different groups did not allow them to be their own tribes. The Europeans treated the Indians with as little respect as possible. The Indians were used to work including the women and children. The Christians changed how they were viewed by the Indians because they suffered from beatings and other tragedies among their tribes. The Native American tribes wanted peace within their groups although they were fightingRead MoreWhy Did Europeans Join The New World?979 Words   |  4 PagesWhy did Europeans come to the New World? Why did they feel that land was there for the taking? How did they justify their expansion? The Europeans ventured to the New World in a quest for gold, land, and also animal skin. They believed that with the over-whelming amount of land that was newly discovered there was certainly room for them. The Europeans found this very justifiable as they knew there land that was conquerable with their advancement in technology such as guns. Also, the Europeans saw NorthRead MoreThe Cultures Of The French And The Micmacs856 Words   |  4 Pages When Europeans arrived in North America, they encountered the Native Americans. This encounter was fraught with difficulties for both sides, for the Native Americans more so than the Europeans. Europeans conquered the Native Americans, forced them into labor, and spread diseases which the Native Americans had no resistance to. In addition to this the Europeans considered themselves superior to the Native Americans. Despite this, the Europeans and Native Americans both had things the other wantedRead MoreThe Cultures Of The French And The M icmac Indians870 Words   |  4 Pages When Europeans encountered the Native Americans, the encounter was fraught with difficulties for both sides, for the Native Americans more so than the Europeans. Europeans conquered the Native Americans, forced them into labor, and spread diseases which the Native Americans had no resistance to. In addition to this the Europeans considered themselves superior to the Native Americans. Despite this, the Europeans and Native Americans, both had things the other wanted and so they often engaged in tradeRead MoreOverview of Several Distinct Cultures in United States681 Words   |  3 Pagesauthor, 2010). Despite the fact that European colonialists had been attracted to this land in earnest since the 17th century, there were still many tribes of the regions native inhabitants, Native American Indians, that still populated the country. Of the many cultural differences that existed between these two population groups Europeans and Native Americans the most salient was the regard that each c ulture had for land and its inherent value. This difference proved so influential because it wasRead MoreNative Americans And The New World1497 Words   |  6 PagesThe European colonists and the Native Americans of the New World were divergent from one another than similar. Native Americans had a more primitive lifestyle than the Europeans modern way of life. Europeans referred to themselves as â€Å"civilized† and looked at Native Americans as â€Å"savages.† In spite of that, Benjamin Franklin corresponded in, Remarks concerning the savages of North America, â€Å"Savages we call them, because their manners differ from ours, which we think the perfection of civility; they

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Revolutionary Mothers Women During The Struggle For...

â€Å"Revolutionary Mothers: Women in the Struggle for America’s Independence† is neither a romantic tale nor an attempt to revise traditional history by making women the pivotal players in war for independence. It does not tell one woman’s story, but many, and not all of those stories end in victory or triumph. The book examines a revolution, or war, that is blurred between the battlefield and the home front. It views the struggle of war through the eyes of women who found themselves willingly and unwillingly, at the center of a prolonged violent conflict. Carol Berkin is a professor of American History at Baruch College and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York. She is also the author of A Brilliant Storm: Inventing the American Constitution, First Generations, and Jonathan Sewall. Berkin is an expert on women’s history in colonial America and has worked as a consultant on many PBS and Historical Documentations. She currently serves on the Board of The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History and the Board of the National Council for History Education. Those who appreciate learning about America’s History would be intrigued to read this book. However, there is twist to Carol Berkin s theme of writing. Her outlook of the American Revolution is portrayed throughout the book as intentionally centering on women s importance during wartime affairs. The huge number of references, sources, and documents makes the book rich and lively. Even when the women areShow MoreRelatedRevolutionary Mothers : Women During The Struggle For America s Independence By Carol Berkin1612 Words   |  7 Pagesreview of the book Revolutionary Mothers: Women in the struggle for America’s independence by Carol Berkin. This comprised of details on women who had been involved in struggling to fulfill the independence of America. Women played their role at facing or creating impact towards the war. This outlines on myriad of women,s lives as well as getting to know the obstacles that they encountered during the war. This aids in bringing out the id ea that not only men who played vital roles during the war, but alsoRead MoreThe Fight Of The American Revolution For Independence1262 Words   |  6 Pagesbeen praised for influencing our nation s independence. In history class we take notice of countless stories about these men. We are talking about George Washington our first president. John Winthrop, first governor of the Massachusetts bay colony, John Adams, and William Pitt. Including, so much more essential man, however, we also need to take into account the stories of the wives of these men and other women who were caught up in the struggle for Americas sovereignty. Throughout the eighteen centuryRead MoreRevolutionary Mothers : Women s Struggle For American Independence985 Words   |  4 PagesRevolutionary Mothers: Women in the struggle for American Independence. By Carol Berkin (New York: Knopf Publishing Group, 2005). 194 pp. Reviewed by Edidiong Mbong, September 20, 2014. Carol Berkin is a professor of American History at Baruch College and the Graduate center of the City University of New York. She is knowledgeable and experience on the matters of women s history in colonial American. She has delivered important fact on the subject in numerous accounts, including First GenerationsRead MoreAn Honorable Woman By Deborah Sampson966 Words   |  4 Pagespotential for America to become very democratic; allowing space for political and social struggles to spread ideas of freedom and challenge the old way of doing things. Ideas of liberty invigorated attacks on both British and domestic American foundations and so did the beliefs of equality in the Declaration of Independence, which caused many in society who were seen as the substandard bunch such as women, slaves and free blacks to question the sanction of their superiors. During the eighteenthRead MoreThe Time Period Of The Years Before And After The American Revolution1637 Words   |  7 PagesThe major issues of slavery, and the expansion of Western lands would be debated before, and after the American Revolutionary War as well as into the next centuries. These viewpoints are covered by writers that contributes these issues in a breakdown of the different time periods of the American Revolutionary phase: the years prior to 1776, the time period after the War of Independence was fought and the states designed their own individual governments, and the time period of when the ConstitutionRead MoreThe Political Movements Of The 1980s And The Southern Cone Dictatorships And Guerrilla Warfare During Central America1540 Words   |  7 Pagesdictatorships and guerrilla warfare in Central America. The woman was marginalized as any other minority, which made them aware of their fate. They decided to accept into their ranks women from the working classes from socio-political movements. It was during this decade that was set up the Latin American and Caribbean feminist meetings. The meeting place was a place of debate, discussion but also of ideas and projects confrontation and was conducted by women who came from different backgrounds with rega rdRead MoreHow The American Revolution Changed America s Political Struggle Against England1757 Words   |  8 Pagessleeps for twenty years. Washington Irving uses a combination of satire, imagery, and irony, intertwined with symbolism, to paint an allegorical image of the American Revolution. Irving particularly focuses the tale of Rip on America’s political struggle during the latter half of the eighteenth century while highlighting the role of England as a colonializing society. The use of symbolism helps in creating a vivid mental picture and a physical sensation of the subject without directly referring to theRead MoreCarol Berkin Essay: Revolutionary Mothers1723 Words   |  7 Pagesï » ¿ â€Å"There is no Sex in soul† Essay on Carol Berkin’s Revolutionary Mothers Women in the Struggle for America’s Independence Jill Martinez HIST 516: American Revolution and Federalist Era November 7, 2014 Adams State University Carol Berkin clearly states her thesis in the introduction of Revolutionary Mothers. â€Å"Despite the absence of radical changes in gender ideology and gender roles for most women, the Revolution did lend legitimacy to new ideas about women’s capacities andRead MoreFeminism : The Position, Rights And Treatment Of Women1927 Words   |  8 Pagestreatment of women has always been one of the ‘’unimportant’’ issues and has been not given the attention needed by others all over the world. Even though there has been progress made today, many women still feel oppressed even in the most developed countries. This oppression derives from the lack of education, religious affiliation and the typical stereotypes, which portray men as the ones in charge and women as the weak part of the chain of our societies. One movement that would help women fight againstRead MoreFeminism : Mary Wollstonecraft1734 Words   |  7 Pagesmore and more women in positions of power. However, feminism has changed and evolved since the first writers expressed their wish for more women’s rights, as do all movements. â€Å"It is time to †¦ restore to them their lost dignity—and make them, as a part of the human species, labour by reforming themselves to reform the world,† wrote Mary Wollstonecraft in her Vindication in the Rights of Women (Wollstonecraft 49). Mary Wollstonecraft, the mother of the feminist movement wanted women to be able to

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cigarette Smoking Rates Among Adults Essay - 1497 Words

In the past century, Cigarettes could be found everywhere in American society. Yet, in the past five decades, they have been at an all time low. Although they are still common in the United States, they are not as common due to their dramatically declining consumption rates amongst adults. Several factors combined to provide one of the most successful and maybe even under-appreciated public health victories in our lifetimes. Some reasons of this dramatic decline include; increasing prices of tobacco products, implementing and enforcing comprehensive smoke-free laws, and sustaining hard-hitting media campaigns. The cigarette smoking rate among adults in the U.S. dropped from 20.9 percent in 2005 to 17.8 percent in 2013, according to new data published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). That is the lowest frequency of adult smoking since the CDC s National Health Interview Survey began keeping these such records in 19 65. The report also shows the number of cigarette smokers dropped from 45.1 million in 2005 to 42.1 million in 2013, despite the increasing population in the United States, which is a factor we must keep in mind. While smoking rates have dropped, there is a significant need to help those who continue to smoke. Cigarette smoking remains especially high among particular groups, most notably those below the poverty level, those who have less education, Americans of multiple race, AmericanShow MoreRelatedEssay on Smoking Trends Among Teenagers1066 Words   |  5 Pages Cigarette smoking is a habit that kills approximately million of people per year. It is surprisingly being picked up by myriad amount of children every day. Smoking becomes a growing trend in the youth community. The number of young smokers have been increased in most American middle schools and high schools. Both girls and boys are smoking because they think it is cool. The four reasons that cause many teenagers to start smoking are peer-pressure, image projection, rebellion, and adult aspirationsRead MoreTrends In Cigarette Smoking Rates Of Diabetes?825 Words   |  4 PagesTrends in Cigarette Smoking Rates and Quit Attempts Among Adults With and Without Diagnosed Diabetes, United States, 2001-2010 Full Citation Fan, A. Z., Rocks, V., Zhang, X., Li, Y., Elam-Evans, L., Balluz, L. (2013, September 19). Preventing Chronic Disease | Trends in Cigarette Smoking Rates and Quit Attempts Among Adults With and Without Diagnosed Diabetes, United States, 2001–2010 - CDC. Retrieved December 09, 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2013/12_0259.htm?s_cid=pcd9e160_x IntroductionRead MoreSmoking Essay1280 Words   |  6 Pages Smoking is known as the leading cause of death in the United States with over 480,000 deaths each year. Due to smoking increasing the risks of dying from several other diseases the total number of deaths that can be attributed to smoking is about 540,000. According to Lecture, the problem exists in society with about 23% of U.S. adults smoking. The highest rates are found in American Indians and Alaska Natives with the lowest being Asians. Smoking is known as public health enemy number one. SmokingRead MoreTobacco Use Is The Leading Cause Of Preventable Disease,978 Words   |  4 Pages2014 Surgeon General’s Report, cigarette smoking and secondhand smoking exposure contribute to more than 480,000 premature deaths annually in the United States. Smoking use is associated with different types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, strokes, diabetes, respiratory diseases, and reproductive disorders. Moreover, cigarette smoking can cause inflammation and impair the immune system (United States Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS), 2017). Smoking during pregnancy is associatedRead MoreCigarette Prices And Developing A Culture Of No Smoking By Rising Taxes On Cigarettes1594 Words   |  7 Pagesthis investigation is to examine the suggestion of cigarette prices and developing a culture of no smoking by rising taxes on cigarettes. Methods: Data on smoking has been selected from the secondary sources. Status of smokers in West Virginia can be observed by the available facts and figures in different newspapers, 99 Results: The odds ratio for being a smoker was 1.21 where no-smoking by-laws were relatively infrequent and 1.26 when cigarettes are relatively low-cost, after changing for separateRead MoreSmokers in Great Britain and the United States1533 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Referring to smoking, different countries have different attitudes towards the habit. Some countries have strong negative altitude against smoking while others do not. In both America and United Kingdom, smokers are seen as social pariahs while in Hong Kong, the altitude towards smokers is not strict (Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013). However, the only one similar attitude between all the three countries is that they all disapprove smoking. This paper will exploreRead MoreEffects Of Cigarette Smoking Among Adult Smokers1264 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services developed a survey for the assessment of cigarette smoking among adult smokers. The assessment showed that there has been a significant decrease/decline in cigarette smoking amongst adults in the year of 2003. The survey proved that fewer adults are smoking in Los Angeles County than if the rate of smoking had remained the same as in previous years. This paper evaluates the findings in the assessment conducted by Los Angeles County DepartmentRead MoreState Of Oklahoma, Oklahoma And Its Health Risks1115 Words   |  5 PagesCommunity Assessment Communities are places where people come together, interact with one another and their environment and share common characteristics, attitudes, interests, and goals. This paper will talk about the smoking community of Tulsa, Oklahoma and its health risks. The paper will then compare and contrast the major health risks of Tulsa to other cities and the state of Oklahoma, and address why this risk is present. Next, the paper will discuss the sources used, how the data was locatedRead MoreThe Effects Of Cigarette Smoking On Health884 Words   |  4 PagesCigarette smoking remains the chief cause of none communicable disease and death in the United States. Each year, cigarette smoking is responsible for an estimated 480 million deaths and more than 8 million smoking-related illnesses (CDC, 2014). It is accountable for total costs nearing 170 billion dollars in direct medical expense and work lost productivity (2014). Although it is true that smoking adversely affects health, there ar e more than 4 million adults reported as active smokers. In manyRead MoreSmoking Rates Among California Adults Essay885 Words   |  4 PagesProtection Act, the smoking rates among California adults have decreased by 42%. From 1990 to 1993, the smoking rates among the youth population for those ages 12 to 17 dropped down to 9.1%. From 1989 to 1993, Proposition 99 helped in the reduction of cigarette consumption by 802 million packs of cigarettes. The smoking prevalence in adults has also decreased from 26.7% in 1988 to 15.5% during the first half of 1995 (Cokkinides et al., 2009). Hence, cigarette consumption and smoking prevalence rapidly

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Big Five Personality Traits with Latent Semantic Analysis

Question: Discuss about the Big Five Personality Traits with Latent Semantic Analysis. Answer: Assessing the Big Five Personality Traits with Latent Semantic Analysis Journal Article Introduction The personality traits of human nature have been categorized into five factors that are believed to be the control of human life and actions. These personality traits have been formed into a factor model that can be remembered and recited easily. This model is known as a five-factor model, and the following are the factors; Conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness to experience and extraversion. These are broad factors that include other minor but significant characteristics, and if a person is perceived to have any or some of them, they portray different characters (Kwantes, Derbentseva, Lam, Vartanian, Marmurek, 2016). For instance, the extraversion factor is related to several characters such as warmth, excitement, and positive emotions among others. It is from the idea of measuring these factors, where the authors of Assessing the Big Five personality traits with latent semantic analysis Journal wished to develop a methodology for measuring and identifying them in people (Cattell, 1943). Therefore, it was thought that analyzing the semantic content of an individual; it was an excellent way to measure the factors (Kwantes, Derbentseva, Lam, Vartanian, Marmurek, 2016). Description of the Journal Article This journal is focusing on tracking the word usage in a persons speech of essay, thus helping in determining their characteristics. Therefore, the use of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) technique has been used by the researchers to develop an algorithm that can be used in future for such personality tests (Kwantes, Derbentseva, Lam, Vartanian, Marmurek, 2016). This research embraces the use of text analytic approach that is very keen in identifying every single word and technique used to a specific individual. Therefore, the words used are characterized by the type of behavior(s) an individual is thought to have (Campbell Pennebaker, 2003). Ideally, every persons speech and words uttered are thought to be influenced by the personality type. On this case, each person is expected to handle the same idea differently because of the difference in personalities. Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) Ideology has been used in developing the idea of obtaining personality type from the words spoken or written over a certain approach. LIWC was developed and invented by Pennebaker and King (1999) who provided the idea of tallying and obtaining the frequency of specific word used from a certain point of interest. For instance, if an individual is interested in linguistics, a lot of articles and prepositions might be observed in their essays. After the texts have been obtained from different individuals, they are analyzed using the analytical analysis. The methods of analysis assume that the word will appear in a particular context that will provide a rationale of concluding the type of personalities perceived. In facilitating the research, cases under study were presented with the scenario, through which they would explain about their feeling and their actions. Therefore, it was assumed that almost every individual would react towards the scena rio according to their personalities and it could be identified in the texts used (Kwantes, Derbentseva, Lam, Vartanian, Marmurek, 2016). Evaluations and Arguments Rationale The authors of the paper were focused on testing whether it is possible to test the personalities of people through an automated method. This method would be able to use the way an individual would approach a certain scenario and through the words uttered, a certain characteristic/personality would be identified. Referring to other individuals work of psychology such as Allport Odbert 1936 and Pennebaker King, 1999, much was developed towards developing a tool that would be used to identify personalities (Chung Pennebaker, 2008). For instance, Allport Odbert documented that there exist some words that play a great role in the case of personality. Also, Allport Odbert believed that then words uttered by a particular individual had a lot to tell about their state of mind and psychological traits. Instead of giving ideas that do not have facts with them, this study was developed to prove the argument that it was possible to identify character traits and personalities through patent semantic analysis. A study was undertaken involving a sample that consisted of some cases under observation. The response of these sample elements was to provide a stand on the issue of accessing the big five personality traits. The study will be successful if a tool of analyzing and understanding the personalities of speakers or authors through their speech is developed. Therefore, although it is a qualitative study, some quantitative analysis has also been used because the sample outcomes are used in decision making. The mean scores and standard deviation statistics show the semantic content in the speeches and responses provided. Methodology The criteria used in this research was sensitive because of the activities that were to be undertaken and nature of the study. Firstly, the study needed to involve individuals who had not idea about the factors under observation. Otherwise, the research would produce biased results. The materials used are much effective as far as the objectives of the study are concerned. For instance, the scenarios developed would significantly provide relevant information as expected by the facilitators of the research. Also, Latent semantic analysis tool used could enhance the chances of acquiring the personalities of the participants. In this case, the frequencies of the words used by the sample units would be recorded, and the nature of the words would dictate the characters and nature of the person. The results obtained from the LSA techniques would be unaltered because the materials used were random from the internet (Landauer, Foltz, Laham, 1998). Selection of Participants Research proceedings are highly sensitive to the methods used for selecting the participants who make up the sample. The process of selecting the sample units need to be fair and unaltered, which ensures that it is fair and random. In the case of this project, the study was undertaken in a university and the sample selected was to depend on the knowledge the individuals had about the research. In this case, one hundred and fifteen first years were used as subjects under study. All the individuals were within the age group of 18 to 23 years. Twelve members of the sample were reported to be using English as their first language, which meant that the population was homogeneous, and knowledge of English language would not alter the results. Results Only 87 members of the sample out of hundred and fifteen were able to complete the survey successfully. Despite the fact that there was no maximum turnout of the sampled individuals, the study generated positive results, and the hypotheses were justified. This meant the information that was used in the analysis was for these participants, who were able to complete the BFI (Big Five Inventory) and the essays (Yarkoni, 2010). The results obtained were analyzed, and their effects were as the enumerators expected it. Based on Table 3 below, it was found that contentiousness and agreeableness could not be determined using the Latent analysis techniques, but the factors tested positively. Thereby, it was found that the middle sized corpora can be used adequately for training, especially where documents that are relevant to traits are used. Also, the correlation coefficients did not show much difference despite the use of distinct volumes of the articles for the study. It was found that for instance, individuals who scored highest in neuroticism has used words such as lazy and smart for their positive view and scared horrible for their negativity (Kwantes, Derbentseva, Lam, Vartanian, Marmurek, 2016). Table 3: Correlation Coefficients Implications of the Study This personality and individual differences study have provided a great change in the psychology research and posed a challenge to the world or research. Through this research, a tool was provided to help in determining personalities using the way a person responds to certain issues and words used in a speech. Some observations and findings were discovered in the same study such as the relationships frequency of words used and the character of agreeableness. Limitations This study had several limitations attached to the way the research was conducted and its requirements. For instance, selecting the sample was limited to the type of people to be selected because all individuals person were supposed to be tolerable and consistent. This is the reason why there, not maximum turn out of the sample unit selected because some of them could not stand all the activities as expected. Also, the scenarios generated did not provide maximum certainty that they could invoke the participants to display their characters. Conclusion In conclusion, the study of personality and individual differences has generated positive results towards the objectives. Some of the personalities were observed about the analysis criteria developed but because of some challenges and limitations there no maximum observations. For instance, agreeableness and conscientiousness might not have been observed effectively because semantic analysis might not be the perfect measure. Finally, it can be concluded that not all the personalities got the perfect measure, which affected the expected outcomes. References Campbell, R. Pennebaker, J. (2003). The Secret Life of Pronouns: Flexibility in Writing Style and Physical Health. Psychological Science, 14(1), 60-65. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.01419 Cattell, R. (1943). The description of personality: basic traits resolved into clusters. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 38(4), 476-506. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0054116 Chung, C. Pennebaker, J. (2008). Revealing dimensions of thinking in open-ended self-descriptions: An automated meaning extraction method for natural language. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(1), 96-132. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2007.04.006 Kwantes, P., Derbentseva, N., Lam, Q., Vartanian, O., Marmurek, H. (2016). Assessing the Big Five personality traits with latent semantic analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 102, 229-233. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.07.010 Landauer, T. (1999). Latent semantic analysis: A theory of the psychology of language and mind. Discourse Processes, 27(3), 303-310. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01638539909545065 Landauer, T., Foltz, P., Laham, D. (1998). An introduction to latent semantic analysis. Discourse Processes, 25(2-3), 259-284. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01638539809545028 McCrae, R. John, O. (1992). An Introduction to the Five-Factor Model and Its Applications. J Personality, 60(2), 175-215. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1992.tb00970.x Pennebaker, J. King, L. (1999). Linguistic styles: Language use as an individual difference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1296-1312. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1296 Pennebaker, J. King, L. (1999). Linguistic styles: Language use as an individual difference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1296-1312. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1296 Perry, S. (2003). Big five personality traits and work drive as predictors of adolescent academic performance. Personality and individual differences. (2001). Personality and Individual Differences, 30(8), I-XII. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0191-8869(01)00038-1 Teovanovic, P. (2014). Anchoring effect: Individual differences approach. Personality and Individual Differences, 60, S77. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.07.461 Yarkoni, T. (2010). Personality in 100,000 Words: A large-scale analysis of personality and word use among bloggers. Journal of Research in Personality, 44(3), 363-373. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2010.04.001

Tuesday, April 7, 2020

No Other Essays - Stonehenge, Henges, , Term Papers

No Other Despite the many purposes it seems to serve, Stonehenge is still the embodiment of mystery for most of the world. Some believe that its purpose was to be used as an astronomical observatory. Others think that it was used as a religious meeting center for the Druids. However, no one has been able to prove its true meaning and existence. Stonehenge is believed to have been built in three main periods. The first took place between 3100 and 2700 B. C. This part of the construction consisted of building a huge ditch around the area in which Stonehenge was to be built (Castleden 1). This ditch was 320 ft. in diameter with a broken area in which the entrance is located. Just inside the ditch 56 holes were dug equal distance from each other. These holes were then filled with chalk rubble, but some of the holes were filled with the bones of cremated human beings. These holes were called the Aubrey holes after their discoverer John Aubrey. To the northeast of the ditch a 16ft. tall heel stone was erected (Brown 751). The second phase of the building is non-existent to this day (Warwick and Trump I t can however be inferred by to holes known as the ?Q? and ?R? holes. The two holes form a double circle around the monument. It was originally filled with 38 blue stones. Also during this building phase two ditches were dug parallel to each other. The two ditches go outward from the entrance. This part of the building process is believed to be unfinished. This thought is due to the fact that some holes are missing in the double circles (Brown 751). The third phase in building is the most spectacular of all the phases. This is because of the 100ft. Circle that is filled with 30 sarsen stone columns which weighs 25 tons separately. A continuous circle of lintel stones held in place by mortise and tenon joints tops them off. Inside the circle is the holes known as the ?X? and ?Y? holes. Also inside are a small horseshoe shape of bluestones. The largest bluestone is called the altar stone. This altar stone's original location and meaning is unknown. It now lies under two fallen trilithon stone. The builders of this age of Stonehenge are the Wessex culture of the early Bronze Age (Brown 752). Those who constructed Stonehenge may never be known. There are many myths and legends as to who really built the huge monument. On such myth is that the great magician Merlin built Stonehenge. This was claimed in the book History of the Kings of Britains written by Geoffrey of Monmouth. According to Geoffrey the huge stones were taken from Ireland and moved to England where they were marked as a burial ground for slain British princes. This monument was set up by King Ambrosius. He sent for Merlin to give him a monument. Merlin suggested the ?Dance of the Giants? in Ireland. However the Irish were not going to give up their monument without a fight. They had set up an army to defend the giant monument from King Ambrosius's army of soldiers sent to fetch the monument. The British defeated the Irish but could not budge the giant stones in any way, shape, or form. Merlin, however, could. He came to their rescue and moved the stones with the greatest of ease. This story was a good explan ation to all medieval believers. Outline I. Construction A. Phases 1. Period I 2. Period II 3. Period III B. Builders 1. Celts and Druids 2. Merlin and King Ambrossius II. Purpose A. Solstice Calendar B. Druids Meetings C. Astronomical Events III. Feeling toward Stonehenge A. Peoples Feelings Then B. Peoples Feelings now

Monday, March 9, 2020

Sociology of Work and Industry

Sociology of Work and Industry No matter what society one lives in, all human beings depend on systems of production to survive. For people in all societies, productive activity, or work, makes up the largest part of their lives- it takes up more time than any other single type of behavior. Defining Work Work, in sociology, is defined as the carrying out of tasks, which involves the expenditure of mental and physical effort, and its objective is the production of goods and services that cater to human needs. An occupation, or job, is work that is done in exchange for a regular wage or salary. In all cultures, work is the basis of the economy or economic system. The economic system for any given culture is made up of the institutions that provide for the production and distribution of goods and services. These institutions may vary from culture to culture, particularly in traditional societies versus modern societies. In traditional cultures, food gathering and food production is the type of work occupied by the majority of the population. In larger traditional societies, carpentry, stonemasonry, and shipbuilding are also prominent. In modern societies where industrial development exists, people work in a much wider variety of occupations. Sociological Theory The study of work, industry, and economic institutions is a major part of sociology because the economy influences all other parts of society and therefore social reproduction in general. It doesn’t matter if we are talking about a hunter-gatherer society, pastoral society, agricultural society, or industrial society; all are centered around an economic system that affects all parts of society, not just personal identities and daily activities. Work is closely intertwined with social structures, social processes, and especially social inequality. The sociology of work goes back to the classical sociological theorists. Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber all considered the analysis of modern work to be central to the field of sociology. Marx was the first social theorist to really examine the conditions of work in factories that were popping up during the industrial revolution, looking at how the transition from independent craftwork to working for a boss in a factory resulted in alienation and deskilling. Durkheim, on the other hand, was concerned with how societies achieved stability through norms, customs, and traditions as work and industry changed during the industrial revolution. Weber focused on the development of new types of authority that emerged in modern bureaucratic organizations. Important Research Many studies in the sociology of work are comparative. For instance, researchers might look at differences in employment and organizational forms across societies as well as across time. Why, for example, do Americans work on average more than 400 hours more per year than those in the Netherlands while South Koreans work more than 700 hours more per year than Americans? Another big topic often studied in the sociology of work is how work is tied to social inequality. For instance, sociologists might look at racial and gender discrimination in the workplace. At the macro level of analysis, sociologists are interested in studying things such as occupational structure, the United States and global economies, and how changes in technology lead to changes in demographics. At the micro level of analysis, sociologists look at topics such as the demands that the workplace and occupations place on workers’ sense of self and identity, and the influence of work on families. References Giddens, A. (1991) Introduction to Sociology. New York, NY: W.W. Norton Company. Vidal, M. (2011). The Sociology of Work. Accessed March 2012 from everydaysociologyblog.com/2011/11/the-sociology-of-work.html

Friday, February 21, 2020

Violence against women Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Violence against women - Essay Example Domestic violence against women reaches all the socioeconomic levels. Poverty, education background as well as culture and religion have contributed largely to cases of domestic violence against women in different parts of the world (Peter et al, 446). There is an urgent need for a clear solution to this social problem and create an environment where both men and women respect each other and shun any forms of violence. This essay examines various literature detailing cases of domestic violence against women from various parts of the world in a bid to showcase the magnitude of the problem and provide solutions based on the cases studied. The essay will also attempt to give an overview of the policies, rules and regulations enacted in various jurisdictions to cub the problem of domestic violence against women. A historical perspective of domestic violence against women can be traced back to the 20th century with the emergence of women’s movements aimed at bringing issues affecting women to the forefront in the context of feminism and women’s rights (Peter et al, 455). Attention was drawn towards the concern of the wives being beaten by their husbands. The political agitations occurring in the countries of United States and United Kingdom led to amendments in both legislation as well as popular opinion. Jordan has attracted international attention in the recent years as far as violence against women is concerned. In Jordan for instance, honor killing is almost a normal thing. Honor killing refers to the killing of women by their partners (Peratis 15). Women risk their lives if they are alleged to engage in certain acts considered immoral in the community such as adultery. Culturally, women who engage in such shameful acts are humiliated and even killed ruthlessly in order to s erve as an example to other women who may engage in such acts (Peratis 15). There are several reported cases in Jordan of women who have been battered and in some instances killed by their own husbands. In a male dominated society such as Jordan, men are always left to go scot free if found engaging in similar acts (Peratis 15). The legal structures in Jordan do not expressly deal with the issues of violence against women. This has led to concerns over whether the authorities in the country support domestic violence. In Brazil, the situation is almost similar to the experiences of women in Jordan. For a very long time, women have received inconsiderable support from authorities in Brazil when they report cases of domestic violence (James 23). Lawyers always seem to argue their case up and keep men out of punishment for violence against women. The legal structures in the country have lots of grey areas that need to be cleared in order to ensure that women enjoy mutual respect and lov e in relationships. Cases of honor killing often drag for so many years therefore delaying justice (James 23). In a recent ground breaking and historical judgment, a Brazilian court ruled in favor of women in an honor killing case by stating that a man who kills his wife can never be acquitted (James 23). This judgment is expected to give Brazilian women a glimpse of hope in to the future. The concept of human rights emerged from the idea of the political theories prevalent in the western world about the rights of humans to freedom and autonomy (Lila 119). It can be stated that the emergence of the human rights aimed to protect the individual and the state. The human rights stay